Discussions are documented separately.
We work in a continuous Kanban manner while still aligning with Milestones.
Epics and issues have the following lifecycle:
Three boards are used to monitor this process
We use the Kanban Plan board to triage issues that are not yet planned for a milestone. Issues in this board are labelled "geo::planning".
The Product Manager(PM) owns this board and uses it to advance issues through to becoming feasible Epics. When work leaves this board, it is in a fit state for the engineering team to implement the issue.
In this stage, the PM establishes new work that they would like to see in the Geo feature. The planning process is as follows:
The PM tries to establish that the issue describes a problem with the Geo feature that is customer-relevant (internal and external), or has some other clear merit (e.g. a technical improvement in the backend). The PM will draw on other group members, customers and the UX organisation where necessary. If the problem is validated, the issue is moved forward to the next stage, otherwise it is closed with a short explanation on why the problem will not be considered. This explanation should also contain a link to the category strategy.
Once the problem is validated, the PM will consider creating an Epic if the scope of the solution is large enough. They will then reach out to the Engineering Manager(EM) for a technical contact in the team. The EM assigns ownership to an engineer. The engineer will work with the PM to determine a technical solution for the problem.
Occasionally, a proof-of-concept (POC) is necessary to determine a feasible technical path. When one is required, the PM will create a POC issue that contains the context of the research to be conducted along with the goals of the POC. This issue will be scheduled for work before any further breakdown of tasks is performed.
POC issues are also time-boxed with a due date applied to these items and should be labeled ~"POC". On the due date, the engineer is expected to provide a comment on the issue regarding the outcome of the POC. Time-boxing these issues is meant to constrain the scope of the work.
It is also important to note that not all POCs will be successful, and that is OK! Some avenues of research may not be successful, and the POC will have saved us from investing significant time in a solution that will not meet our needs. The goal is to fail fast!
The PM and the engineer will work together to create all of the issues required to build the solution. This includes
Ideally, epics and issues should be broken down by external functionality rather than by implementation details. There will be exceptions such as refactors and performance improvements.
Post-release tasks that need to be performed by SRE's are created in the Infrastructure team project and cannot be added to Epics as related issues. For these, it's useful to list them in the Epic description.
When they are satisfied that they have a reasonable solution with all issues weighted, they will send the Epic link out for discussion and feedback. Planning is transparent anyway, but this serves to notify the team that the Epic is ready for development.
Issues are then given the "geo::scheduling" label.
This signifies that from both a product and engineering point of view, this issue is prepared and ready to be built as soon as there is space in the schedule.
We use the Kanban Scheduling board for this phase.
Once per week, the PM and EM will meet to discuss the work that is currently active, and queue prepared items for development.
In this meeting, prepared items will be given the label "geo::active", which will pull items into the Build board.
This meeting is recorded and open for anyone to join. Attendance for the Geo Team is optional as it is recorded. We will also try to move the time of the meeting around to suit epic owners when their epics are due to be scheduled.
The agenda for the meeting is:
We use the Kanban Build board
to look at issues that have the
geo::active label in combination with the
The Engineering Manager(EM) owns this board and uses it to facilitate building out the Epics and issues that the team have decided are ready for development.
Issues are added in the "ready for development" column in priority order. When an engineer is open, they can pick unassigned issues from the top of this list. As their work progresses, they advance the issue through the "in dev" and "in review" columns. Engineers need to keep the issues aligned with the status of the corresponding merge requests.
When an issue is "in review", the MR should be assigned to both the original engineer and the reviewer so that it is clear that the merge request has an active reviewer. This helps the EM to see how much work is allocated to each person.
The column for "verification" is where the owner of the Epic, or the PM will ensure that the issue fits into the context of the solution. This is also where we confirm if a release note is required for this issue, and assign the correct milestone.
For some issues, there are tasks that need to be performed by SRE's after the release is completed. Because these tasks are often in the infrastructure project, they cannot be added to Epics. We still need to track these and follow them through to completion.
Finally, we ensure that any communication that needs to go out for this issue is delivered. These can take the form of release posts, blog posts, video tutorials, or demos.
The Geo team uses epics to describe features or capabilities that will increase the maturity of the Geo categories over time.
Each Epic should be owned by an engineer who is responsible for all technical aspects of that Epic. If at any point, the owner needs to take leave that is more than a few days, they should assign another engineer to act as owner until they return.
In the planning phase, the engineering owner will work closely with the Product Manager to understand what the requirements are and why they are important to customers. The engineer will decide on how best to deliver the solution and create issues that encapsulate the technical work required. They may need to consult with other team members and stable counterparts to come up with the right approach to delivering the requirements.
They should include issues for documentation changes and additional testing requirements that are required. There should be an issue created to inform Geo experts in the Support group about the change if needed. The engineer should also consider if there is any technical debt that is appropriate to address at the same time. Issues are also needed for any rollout or post-release tasks.
Each issue needs to be weighted and contain enough information for any other engineer on the team to be able to pick up that work.
When they are satisfied that all of the issues are created, and ready for development, they (with the PM) should present this information to the team for feedback. Preparation is still transparent and open to feedback at any point, this step is just a way to tell the team that the Epic is ready to be built and confirm that everyone is aware of what needs to be done.
For the duration of building the epic, the engineer does not need to be the only person implementing the issues. They should keep watch of the work that is done on the issues so that they can verify that the work is progressing correctly. Ideally, they should also be an approver on each MR for the Epic. If there are problems with the work, or lengthy delays, they need to make sure the Product Manager and Engineering Manager are aware.
When work is nearing completion, the engineer should check the release note and work with the PM on any changes. They should also make sure that any additional issues that may have come up during the build process are either addressed, or scheduled for work. This will help to make sure that we do not build up technical debt while building.
Finally, they should also monitor any work that needs to occur while rolling out the Epic in production. If there are rake tasks, database migrations, or other tasks that need to be run, they need to see those through to being run on the production systems with the help of the Site Reliability counterpart. They may also need to assist the Product Manager with creating the release note for the Epic.
This places a lot of responsibility with the owner, but the PM and EM are always there to support them. This ownership removes bottlenecks and situations where only the PM or EM is able to advance an idea. In addition, the best people to decide on how to implement an issue are often the people who will actually perform the work.
The responsibility of the Product Manager is to make sure that there is enough information for the engineer to develop the correct solution that meets the requirements. They are also available to answer clarifying questions or consider how to approach edge cases. At the end of an epic they also communicate this out to customers and other interested parties.
The Engineering Manager is responsible for clearing the path. They need to make sure the engineers performing the work have the access to the right information, people, tools, and other resources to get the work done. They try to foresee problems and clear any blockers that may arise while the work is in progress.
When new issues arise (through testing, customer support issues, or other means) we still want to be able to address them quickly without being delayed by process. If you think a new issue needs to be worked on immediately:
We use the weights from the set [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10] where the value represents a "best work day". A "best work day" means a day where there are no interruptions, emails or other demands on your time. For example, if an issue is assigned a weight of 5 then an engineer should be able to complete the work in 5 days if this were the only thing that they needed to do for those five days.
If an issue is assigned a weight of 10, then the issue is too big and will need to be broken down further. This usually means promoting the issue to an epic and raising individual issues that have a lower weight.
If any issue is weighted above a 3, we should ask ourselves if it can be further broken down. We should do this even if the issue was already broken out from an even larger issue.
We do not have pre-defined dates for retrospectives. When there is something to be discussed, an issue should be created in the retrospectives project. This way we can address any issues as soon as they arise.
Celebrating successes becomes harder with this method, but please try to mention achievements in Slack as they occur.
For reference, we previously followed the milestones to have a retrospective after each one was closed. There were a few challenges with this method, and we agreed to change to the new method when we moved to Kanban. This was discussed in an issue about process change.
"Pull from the right". That means, start at the right hand side of the build board, and move towards the left.
In order, that means: