This blog post was originally published on the GitLab Unfiltered blog. It was reviewed and republished on 2021-03-10.
This is a story about achieving production-grade infrastructure in under five minutes.
This is a story about achieving production-grade DevSecOps in under five minutes.
This is a story about achieving total convergence of GitOps in under five minutes.
My name is Sri and over the last three months and I worked closely with GitLab co-founder DZ in building "Five Minute Production App."
The app blends solutions offered by AWS, Hashicorp Terraform, and GitLab, and offers production-grade infrastructure and development workflows in under five minutes.
Apart from the efficiencies gained from using Five Minute Production App, you benefit by achieving stateful, production-ready infrastructure on the AWS hypercloud.
We started with AWS first, as it is the hypercoud leader today. Support for Azure and Google Cloud is on the roadmap.
Our vision and design decisions are explained in the README and category direction.
We start with your GitLab project which has the source code of your web application. Regardless of which language or framework you use, your web application is packaged as a container image and stored within your GitLab project's Container Registry. This is the Build stage.
This is followed by the Provision stage where Terraform scripts connect to AWS and create a secure environment for your web application. The environments provisioned relate to your Git branching workflow. Long-lived Git branches create long-lived environments, and short-lived Git branches correspond to short-lived environments.
Resources provisioned include an Ubuntu VM, scalable PostgreSQL database, a Redis cluster, and S3 object storage. We consider these elements as the building blocks for majority of web applications, and many of these fall under AWS free tier.
The infra state and credentials are stored within your GitLab project's managed Terraform state.
Finally, we reach the Deploy stage which:
- Retrieves the deployable image from the GitLab Container Registry
- Retrieves the infrastructure credentials from the Gitlab Managed Terraform State, and
- Proceeds to deploy your web application
Everything is achieved by including these two lines in your
include: remote: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/5-minute-production-app/deploy-template/-/raw/stable/deploy.yml
Let's look at the complete process in more detail.
The three stages of Five Minute Production App
Build and package
The Build stage is where it all begins. Five Minute Production App reuses the Auto Build stage from the GitLab Auto DevOps pipeline.
Auto Build builds and packages web applications that are:
- Containerized with a Dockerfile, or
- Compatible with the Cloud Native buildpack, or
- Compatible with the Heroku buildpack
Thus, web applications across multitudes of technologies are supported, including web frameworks such as Rails, Django, Express, Next.js, Spring, etc. and programming languages including Python, Java, Node.js, Ruby, Clojure, etc.
Once the Auto Build job has finished execution, the newly created container image is stored as an artifact in your GitLab project's Container Registry.
Provision the infrastructure
The next step, Provision, prepares infrastructure resources in AWS. The first requirement here is the presence of AWS credentials stored as CI/CD variables at the project or group level. Once valid AWS credentials are found, a Terraform script is executed to generate resources in AWS.
These resources include:
- EC2 VM based on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
- PostgreSQL database managed by AWS RDS
- Redis cluster managed by AWS ElastiCache
- S3 bucket for file storage
- Email Service credentials managed by AWS SES
The most critical resource is the PostgreSQL service which has daily backups enabled. PostgreSQL data is snapshotted if the infrastructure resource is "destroyed" through a manual user action via the Five Minute Production App pipeline.
The EC2 VM is the only service accessible publicly. Ports 22, 80 and 443 are exposed. Every other resource described above is part of a secure, private network, hidden from the public web, accessible ony via the EC2 instance and your web applicable deployed there.
The stateful services and environments are tied to your Git branches.
This means every Git branch creates a new environment with these resource sets.
We don't have a preference on your Git branching and environments lifecycle.
Use long-lived or short-lived branches as you see fit, just keep in mind that long-lived branches leads to long-lived environments and short-lived branches leads to short-lived environments.
Infrastructure resources provisioned on AWS
Deploy your web application
Finally comes the Deploy stage.
This is where the deploy script retrieves your web application package (container image) from the GitLab Container Registry, then retrieves the EC2 instance credentials from the GitLab Managed Terraform State, and proceeds to deploy the relevant version of your web application in its environment.
Modern web applications might require additional commands being executed after each deployment or after the initial deployment,
and these commands can be defined as variables in your
Finally, with the help of Certbot from Letsencrypt, SSL certificates are generated and configured for your web application.
If you have defined the
CERT_DOMAIN CI/CD variable the SSL certificate will be generated for your custom domain name.
Otherwise the generated SSL certificate uses a dynamic URL that Five Minute Production App prepares for you.
There we have it. A simple yet production-ready setup for your web application. If you are looking for an AWS-based setup, this is ready for usage.
If you are looking for something similar but not quite Five Minute Production App, this serves as an example of how to converge infrastructure-as-code with software development and provide seamless continuous deployment workflows.
In my personal experience, this is one of the most complete examples of GitOps:
- Your application source code lives in your GitLab project
- Your infrastructure defined as code lives in your GitLab project
- Your CI/CD pipeline lives in your GitLab project
- Your infrastructure state lives in your GitLab project
- Your infrastructure secrets and credentials live in your GitLab project
- Your environments configuration lives in your GitLab project
This complete GitOps convergence is not specifically configured for one project. It can be included as a template from multiple projects. There is no reason why the GitLab project in your organization cannot be the single source of truth for everything.
About the author
Sri Rangan, an Enterprise Solutions Architect with GitLab, is a core-contributor and maintainer of Five Minute Production App.